How does water come from over the top of the wall?
The most common source of this type of leak is from one of these two below-grade causes. Either the soil grade was improperly performed or homeowners attempted to build the dirt level higher than the concrete wall, causing the seepage through below-grade brick or siding.
Above-grade water penetration can also occur due to improper caulking or tuckpointing of finishing materials such as siding. Very similar to a shower curtain hanging out on the wrong side of the ledge, moisture penetrating the veneer of the foundation can run down the backside of finishing materials and spillover through the sill-plate juncture. Another example would be improperly directed downspouts. If the water from the roof is not directed far enough away from the foundation, then the soil becomes too saturated and leaks through the same juncture.
To determine whether there is a below-grade or above-grade foundation concern, saturate the ground at the foundation. If water penetrates into the basement, the issue is a below-grade concern. The grading will need to be corrected. If the water does not penetrate, the concern is above-grade and will require the correctional repairs to waterproofing of foundation.
Stone, block, and tile foundations will require specialized waterproofing systems. It is best to consult a foundation waterproofing specialist. The quickest resolution involving a poured concrete foundation water seepage concerns would also be to seek professional analysis. Contractors carrying waterproofing systems are specifically trained in resolving these matters with these premium top-of-the-line products.